Patone M, Mei XW, Handunnetthi L, Dixon S, Zaccardi F, Shankar-Hari M, Watkinson P, Khunti K, Harnden A, Coupland CAC, Channon KM, Mills NL, Sheikh A, Hippisley-Cox J. Risk of Myocarditis After Sequential Doses of COVID-19 Vaccine and SARS-CoV-2 Infection by Age and Sex. Circulation. 2022 Aug 22. doi: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.122.059970. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 35993236.
Methods: A self-controlled case series study of people ages 13 years or older vaccinated for COVID-19 in England between December 1, 2020, and December 15, 2021, evaluated the association between vaccination and myocarditis, stratified by age and sex. The incidence rate ratio and excess number of hospital admissions or deaths from myocarditis per million people were estimated for the 1 to 28 days after sequential doses of adenovirus (ChAdOx1) or mRNA-based (BNT162b2, mRNA-1273) vaccines, or after a positive SARS-CoV-2 test.Results: In 42 842 345 people receiving at least 1 dose of vaccine, 21 242 629 received 3 doses, and 5 934 153 had SARS-CoV-2 infection before or after vaccination. Myocarditis occurred in 2861 (0.007%) people, with 617 events 1 to 28 days after vaccination. Risk of myocarditis was increased in the 1 to 28 days after a first dose of ChAdOx1 (incidence rate ratio, 1.33 [95% CI, 1.09-1.62]) and a first, second, and booster dose of BNT162b2 (1.52 [95% CI, 1.24-1.85]; 1.57 [95% CI, 1.28-1.92], and 1.72 [95% CI, 1.33-2.22], respectively) but was lower than the risks after a positive SARS-CoV-2 test before or after vaccination (11.14 [95% CI, 8.64-14.36] and 5.97 [95% CI, 4.54-7.87], respectively). The risk of myocarditis was higher 1 to 28 days after a second dose of mRNA-1273 (11.76 [95% CI, 7.25-19.08]) and persisted after a booster dose (2.64 [95% CI, 1.25-5.58]). Associations were stronger in men younger than 40 years for all vaccines. In men younger than 40 years old, the number of excess myocarditis events per million people was higher after a second dose of mRNA-1273 than after a positive SARS-CoV-2 test (97 [95% CI, 91-99] versus 16 [95% CI, 12-18]). In women younger than 40 years, the number of excess events per million was similar after a second dose of mRNA-1273 and a positive test (7 [95% CI, 1-9] versus 8 [95% CI, 6-8]).
Conclusions: Overall, the risk of myocarditis is greater after SARS-CoV-2 infection than after COVID-19 vaccination and remains modest after sequential doses including a booster dose of BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine. However, the risk of myocarditis after vaccination is higher in younger men, particularly after a second dose of the mRNA-1273 vaccine.
Myocarditis Risk Higher After COVID-19 Infection than After COVID-19 Vaccination:The researchers found that the risk of myocarditis in unvaccinated individuals after COVID-19 infection was at least 11 times higher than that in people who developed myocarditis after receiving a COVID-19 vaccine or booster dose. They also highlighted that for those who had received at least one dose of a COVID-19 vaccine, the risk of COVID-19 infection-related myocarditis was reduced by half, which suggested that the “prevention of infection associated myocarditis may be an additional longer-term benefit of vaccination”, said the authors.
“The risk of myocarditis is substantially higher after COVID-19 infection in unvaccinated individuals than the increase in risk observed after a first dose of Astra-Zeneca vaccine, and a first, second, or booster dose of Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine,” said the authors.
Sharff KA, Dancoes DM, Longueil JL, Johnson ES, Lewis PF. Risk of myopericarditis following COVID-19 mRNA vaccination in a large integrated health system: A comparison of completeness and timeliness of two methods. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf. 2022 Aug;31(8):921-925. doi: 10.1002/pds.5439. Epub 2022 Apr 16. PMID: 35404496; PMCID: PMC9088632.
Purpose: How completely do hospital discharge diagnoses identify cases of myopericarditis after an mRNA vaccine?Methods: We assembled a cohort 12-39 year-old patients, insured by Kaiser Permanente Northwest, who received at least one dose of an mRNA vaccine (Pfizer-BioNTech or Moderna) between December 2020 and October 2021. We followed them for up to 30 days after their second dose of an mRNA vaccine to identify encounters for myocarditis, pericarditis or myopericarditis. We compared two identification methods: A method that searched all encounter diagnoses using a brief text description (e.g., ICD-10-CM code I40.9 is defined as ‘acute myocarditis, unspecified’). We searched the text description of all inpatient or outpatient encounter diagnoses (in any position) for “myocarditis” or “pericarditis.” The other method was developed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Vaccine Safety Datalink (VSD), which searched for emergency department visits or hospitalizations with a select set of discharge ICD-10-CM diagnosis codes. For both methods, two physicians independently reviewed the identified patient records and classified them as confirmed, probable or not cases using the CDC’s case definition.
Results: The encounter methodology identified 14 distinct patients who met the confirmed or probable CDC case definition for acute myocarditis or pericarditis with an onset within 21 days of receipt of COVID-19 vaccination. When we extended the search for relevant diagnoses to 30 days since vaccination, we identified two additional patients (for a total of 16 patients) who met the case definition for acute myocarditis or pericarditis, but those patients had been misdiagnosed at the time of their original presentation. Three of these patients had an ICD-10-CM code of I51.4 “Myocarditis, Unspecified;” that code was omitted by the VSD algorithm (in the late fall of 2021). The VSD methodology identified 11 patients who met the CDC case definition for acute myocarditis or pericarditis. Seven (64%) of the 11 patients had initial care for myopericarditis outside of a KPNW facility and their diagnosis could not be ascertained by the VSD methodology until claims were submitted (median delay of 33 days; range of 12-195 days). Among those who received a second dose of vaccine (n = 146 785), we estimated a risk as 95.4 cases of myopericarditis per million second doses administered (95% CI, 52.1-160.0).Conclusion: We identified additional valid cases of myopericarditis following an mRNA vaccination that would be missed by the VSD’s search algorithm, which depends on select hospital discharge diagnosis codes. The true incidence of myopericarditis is markedly higher than the incidence reported to US advisory committees in the fall of 2021. The VSD should validate its search algorithm to improve its sensitivity for myopericarditis.
Pillay J, Gaudet L, Wingert A, Bialy L, Mackie AS, Paterson DI, Hartling L. Incidence, risk factors, natural history, and hypothesised mechanisms of myocarditis and pericarditis following covid-19 vaccination: living evidence syntheses and review. BMJ. 2022 Jul 13;378:e069445. doi: 10.1136/bmj-2021-069445. PMID: 35830976; PMCID: PMC9277081.
Data sources: Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Library were searched from 6 October 2020 to 10 January 2022; reference lists and grey literature (to 13 January 2021). One reviewer completed screening and another verified 50% of exclusions, using a machine learning program to prioritise records. A second reviewer verified all exclusions at full text, extracted data, and (for incidence and risk factors) risk of bias assessments using modified Joanna Briggs Institute tools. Team consensus determined certainty of evidence ratings for incidence and risk factors using GRADE (Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation).Results: 46 studies were included (14 on incidence, seven on risk factors, 11 on characteristics and short term course, three on longer term outcomes, and 21 on mechanisms). Incidence of myocarditis after mRNA vaccines was highest in male adolescents and male young adults (age 12-17 years, range 50-139 cases per million (low certainty); 18-29 years, 28-147 per million (moderate certainty)). For girls and boys aged 5-11 years and women aged 18-29 years, incidence of myocarditis after vaccination with BNT162b2 (Pfizer/BioNTech) could be fewer than 20 cases per million (low certainty). Incidence after a third dose of an mRNA vaccine had very low certainty evidence. For individuals of 18-29 years, incidence of myocarditis is probably higher after vaccination with mRNA-1273 (Moderna) compared with Pfizer (moderate certainty). Among individuals aged 12-17, 18-29, or 18-39 years, incidence of myocarditis or pericarditis after dose two of an mRNA vaccine for covid-19 might be lower when administered ≥31 days compared with ≤30 days after dose one (low certainty). Data specific to men aged 18-29 years indicated that the dosing interval might need to increase to ≥56 days to substantially drop myocarditis or pericarditis incidence. For clinical course and short term outcomes, only one small case series (n=8) was found for 5-11 year olds. In adolescents and adults, most (>90%) myocarditis cases involved men of a median 20-30 years of age and with symptom onset two to four days after a second dose (71-100%). Most people were admitted to hospital (≥84%) for a short duration (two to four days). For pericarditis, data were limited but more variation than myocarditis has been reported in patient age, sex, onset timing, and rate of admission to hospital. Three case series with longer term (3 months; n=38) follow-up suggested persistent echocardiogram abnormalities, as well as ongoing symptoms or a need for drug treatments or restriction from activities in >50% of patients. Sixteen hypothesised mechanisms were described, with little direct supporting or refuting evidence.
Conclusions: These findings indicate that adolescent and young adult men are at the highest risk of myocarditis after mRNA vaccination. Use of a Pfizer vaccine over a Moderna vaccine and waiting for more than 30 days between doses might be preferred for this population. Incidence of myocarditis in children aged 5-11 years is very rare but certainty was low. Data for clinical risk factors were very limited. A clinical course of mRNA related myocarditis appeared to be benign, although longer term follow-up data were limited. Prospective studies with appropriate testing (eg, biopsy and tissue morphology) will enhance understanding of mechanism.
Buchan SA, Seo CY, Johnson C, Alley S, Kwong JC, Nasreen S, Calzavara A, Lu D, Harris TM, Yu K, Wilson SE. Epidemiology of Myocarditis and Pericarditis Following mRNA Vaccination by Vaccine Product, Schedule, and Interdose Interval Among Adolescents and Adults in Ontario, Canada. JAMA Netw Open. 2022 Jun 1;5(6):e2218505. doi: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2022.18505. PMID: 35749115; PMCID: PMC9233237.
Main outcomes and measures: All reports of myocarditis or pericarditis meeting levels 1 to 3 of the Brighton Collaboration case definitions were included. Rates and 95% CIs of reported cases of myocarditis or pericarditis per 1 000 000 mRNA vaccine doses administered were calculated by age, sex, dose number, vaccine product, and interdose interval.Results: Among 19 740 741 doses of mRNA vaccines administered, there were 297 reports of myocarditis or pericarditis meeting the inclusion criteria; 228 (76.8%) occurred in male individuals, and the median age of individuals with a reported event was 24 years (range, 12-81 years). Of the reported cases, 207 (69.7%) occurred following the second dose of the COVID-19 mRNA vaccine. When restricted to individuals who received their second dose during the period of enhanced passive surveillance (on or after June 1, 2021), the highest rate of myocarditis or pericarditis was observed in male individuals aged 18 to 24 years following mRNA-1273 as the second dose (299.5 cases per 1 000 000 doses; 95% CI, 171.2-486.4 cases per 1 000 000 doses); the rate following BNT162b2 as the second dose was 59.2 cases per 1 000 000 doses (95% CI, 19.2-138.1 cases per 1 000 000 doses). Overall rates for both vaccine products were significantly higher when the interdose interval was 30 or fewer days (BNT162b2: 52.1 cases per 1 000 000 doses [95% CI, 31.8-80.5 cases per 1 000 000 doses]; mRNA-1273: 83.9 cases per 1 000 000 doses [95% CI, 47.0-138.4 cases per 1 000 000 doses]) compared with 56 or more days (BNT162b2: 9.6 cases per 1 000 000 doses [95% CI, 6.5-13.6 cases per 1 000 000 doses]; mRNA-1273: 16.2 cases per 1 000 000 doses [95% CI, 10.2-24.6 cases per 1 000 000 doses]).
Conclusions and relevance: The findings of this population-based cohort study of Ontario adolescents and adults with myocarditis or pericarditis following mRNA COVID-19 vaccination suggest that vaccine products and interdose intervals, in addition to age and sex, may be associated with the risk of myocarditis or pericarditis after receipt of these vaccines. Vaccination program strategies, such as age-based product considerations and longer interdose intervals, may reduce the risk of myocarditis or pericarditis following receipt of mRNA vaccines.